Urdu (/ˈʊərduː/; Urdu: اُردُو ALA-LC: Urdū; IPA: [ˈʊrd̪uː] ( listen), or Modern Standard Urdu) is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan, and an official language of six states of India. It is also one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India. There are four circles of Urdu speakers. There are 100 million native speakers or inner circle mainly in Pakistan and India. The second language speakers are 300 million of which 173 million live in Pakistan and 125 million Muslims of India. The outer circle is mainly in India as Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi which adds 400 million Hindi speakers and expanding circle where 600 million more Indian Hindus and Bangladeshi Muslims who have some level of Hindi/Urdu skills. This puts the total at about 1.4 billion speakers.
- "Common Vocabulary in Urdu and Turkish Language: A Case of Historical Onomasiology" (PDF). http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/studies/PDF-FILES/Artical-10_v15_no1.pdf Journal of Pakistan Vision. Retrieved 15 September 2013.